The significance of parks to physical activity and public health

Park-based physical pastime is a promising means to satisfy current bodily interest requirements. However, there may be little studies concerning what park environmental and coverage traits would possibly beautify bodily activity ranges. This look at proposes a conceptual model to guide questioning and advise hypotheses. This framework describes the relationships among park benefits, park use, and physical pastime, and the antecedents/correlates of park use. In this type scheme, the dialogue focuses on park environmental characteristics that would be related to bodily interest, which include park capabilities, situation, get entry to, aesthetics, protection, and rules. Data for those categories have to be gathered inside unique geographic regions in or across the park, together with hobby areas, helping regions, the overall park, and the surrounding community. Future research ought to consciousness on a way to operationalize precise measures and methodologies for collecting statistics, in addition to measuring associations among individual bodily hobby levels and particular park traits. Collaboration among many disciplines is wanted.
Regular bodily pastime has been proven to reduce morbidity and mortality via decreasing heart sickness, diabetes, excessive blood pressure, colon cancer, feelings of melancholy/tension, and weight, while constructing and retaining wholesome bones, muscular tissues, and joints.1 Due to increasingly sedentary jobs and an accelerated reliance on motorized transport, enjoyment-time bodily pastime can be vital in pleasurable endorsed physical hobby degrees. Leisure-time physical pastime can be carried out in a variety of network environments, which includes local parks, which are frequently handy to residents at low or no value.2 However, almost 1 / 4 of the grownup population inside the United States in 2002 pronounced getting no entertainment-time physical activity at all in the course of the past month.Three
Traditionally, studies on disorder prevention has focused people to impact behavioral exchange. Typical approaches to inspire physical activity include curriculum amendment in physical training and fitness classes, one-on-one and group counseling periods in an expansion of settings, provision of promotional materials, screenings, and self-monitoring. These strategies all share a focus on converting behaviors over which people theoretically have manipulate. Because such strategies by myself have not made enough inroads in growing bodily pastime, there have been latest requires interventions that encompass environmental processes as well.Four, 5, 6 An technique that targets structural factors beyond the control of a single man or woman should alter the community surroundings and make it simpler for people to be bodily energetic. Such environments include facilities for entertainment activity, along with trails, public swimming pools, and parks.
Parks are not unusual network functions that provide possibilities for physical hobby, yet we recognise little approximately the precise park characteristics that are most associated with bodily interest.7 Many aspects of parks can be measured and studied on the subject of physical interest. Since it is not viable to test all of them in a single take a look at, a conceptual version is needed to manual thinking and suggest hypotheses. This paper highlights how park and activity settings may affect public fitness via a conceptual framework touching on park environments to physical interest and, in the end, the health of park users. Finally, transdisciplinary field studies is endorsed if you want to examine the relationships among park environmental attributes and bodily hobby stages within park settings.
A conceptual version of the function of parks in public health
Twenty-five years of amusement research have provided a wealth of facts regarding the advantages of parks and pastime services, which include character, social, economic, and environmental advantages.Eight Less attention has been paid, however, to reading the links between parks and physiologic health effects. Recommended recommendations for physical interest encompass four components: frequency, time or duration, kind, and intensity of bodily interest.9 While enjoyment studies has targeted on frequency of entertainment participation, entertainment time utilization, and form of entertainment time bodily interest, what is missing from this literature are studies linking park-primarily based amusement to bodily hobby depth ranges (e.G., sedentary, slight, and lively pastime). Documentation of those enjoyment benefits has also in large part been based totally on self-record methodologies. Recently, there was a growing interest in organising greater objective evidence of such benefits (e.G., improved monetary advantages because of better belongings values, decreased healthcare expenses because of leisure-based totally health programs). By imparting possibilities for bodily hobby, parks can facilitate physical and mental health blessings.10 Many disciplines (public fitness, panorama structure, and parks and recreation) are now wondering how present park settings can be higher promoted or modified to growth physical pastime levels and health. While several research have established linkages among park use and health,eleven, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 few have systematically tested the particular environmental attributes that correspond to higher stages of physical interest. To provide a basis for such studies, a conceptual version is proposed that couches park environments in phrases of their benefits and, extra mainly, proposes the linkage among physical pastime and unique park functions.
Figure 1 highlights the capacity relationships amongst park environmental traits, park visitation, bodily activity within parks, and physical fitness blessings (see shaded boxes of the model). The decrease section of the version indicates antecedents, or correlates of park use (the elements that have an impact on frequency of use and nonuse). At the most simple level these correlates may be grouped into two large categories: the traits of capacity park users and the environmental characteristics of parks themselves. The environmental characteristics of parks are provided in in addition element beneath. The middle segment of the version illustrates the quantity and nature of park use. Park visitation considers those who visit the park, regardless of the form of activity they pursue as soon as there. Once people are inside the park, the “bodily pastime within park” field then describes the extent of interest they engage in, be it sedentary, moderate, or energetic. Finally, the pinnacle section of the version illustrates the numerous types of consequences (or benefits) because of parks and park usage. These include physical health blessings from physical pastime consisting of a lower chance of weight problems, heart sickness, and diabetes; mental fitness advantages including strain discount; social advantages consisting of extended social capital; as well as economic and environmental blessings which could accrue to society resulting virtually from the life of the park in a network. These advantages are described beneath.
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Figure 1The dating between parks and physical pastime. Note: Darker arrows and shaded containers indicate the principle connections protected on this paper.
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Benefits of parks and park use
Parks centers and offerings provide numerous opportunities to satisfy individual, social, monetary, and environmental benefits.8, 23 Some of these possibilities advantage an entire network, now not just park users. For instance, a rail-trail may also attract restaurants and stores that in flip spend and make investments cash in the community and increase the community’s tax base. Although the focus of this examine is on the health blessings which can be acquired via bodily hobby in parks, different critical advantages of park use (including psychological, social, monetary, and environmental blessings) ought to also be mentioned.
Physical health advantages
Previous enjoyment research has focused on the position of park-primarily based entertainment in improving moods, decreasing perceived pressure, and improving a feel of wellness.22 However, few research have explicitly investigated the impact of park-based totally amusement pastime tiers at the bodily health of park users. Exercise facilities, which include parks, which are without problems placed (as measured by way of self-reports) were located to be associated with vigorous bodily activity in some of research, amongst each adults and youngsters.Eleven, 12 Other community factors that have been positively related to bodily activity include the presence of exciting surroundings,24, 25, 26, 27 frequency of seeing others exercise,24, 25, 26, 28 and get admission to to and pride with recreational facilities.12, 24, 25, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32 Future research at the particular capabilities of parks that promote bodily pastime could investigate the relative significance of get right of entry to to properly-maintained park facilities, a park’s esthetic surroundings, and perceived safety.
Psychological fitness advantages
In addition to the bodily health benefits of parks, there can be numerous psychological advantages for park users that rise up from the proximity of “natural environments.” Studies among employees,33 university college students,34 medical institution sufferers,35 internal-metropolis ladies,36 public housing residents,37 and apartment residents38 have discovered a ramification of mental, emotional, and intellectual fitness benefits stemming from having a view of nature through their home windows. Other studies have counseled that people location cost on the life of parks even when they do now not use them. Ulrich and Addoms,thirteen as an example, discovered that university college students derive great psychological blessings, consisting of “emotions of open space,” “exchange of scenery,” and “vicinity to break out campus,” from their reviews in or nearness to the park. These psychological benefits ranked better in importance than the leisure and social elements associated with parks. Other research have shown that “having the park there” is the largest source of satisfaction for citizens dwelling close to a small park.14, 15 In addition to park proximity, real use of parks additionally pertains to improved psychological health. In a have a look at of older adult park customers who participated in light to slight aerobic interest, Godbey and Blazey16 determined that 1/2 of the pattern indicated that they had been in a better temper after touring the park. In addition, More and Payne17 also observed that park users said decrease stages of tension and disappointment after visiting parks. Hull and Michael’s 18 research of park users located that the longer the participants stayed in park settings, the much less stress they pronounced.
Physical interest and psychological fitness also are associated. Several evaluations of exercise and despair research indicate that exercise reduces melancholy symptoms amongst people recognized with depression by way of three fourths to 1 general deviation and among people without despair with the aid of about one 1/2 widespread deviation.39, 40, forty one, forty two, forty three Therefore, combining the useful results of physical interest on melancholy with the restorative consequences of nature would indicate an critical function for parks in improving psychological fitness.
Social advantages
Parks may facilitate social interactions which are crucial in retaining network cohesion, pride, and social capital.44 Parks play a role in increasing social capital by using supplying a meeting area where humans can expand social ties and a placing in which wholesome conduct (together with bodily hobby) is modeled. Social capital, which is described because the relationships among people that facilitate effective pastime,forty five can be associated with health and bodily activity.Forty six, 47 Studies in poor urban regions endorse that park-like natural factors sell multiplied possibilities for social interactions. Coley et al.Forty eight discovered that during two Chicago public housing traits natural landscaping and spaces with timber attracted large businesses of people than did spaces without nature. A similar study located that publicity to green common areas among elderly internal-town individuals is considerably positively correlated with social integration.49 However, the bodily environment may also inhibit the formation of community social ties when settings are crowded, risky, and noisy.50 Studies among public housing residents advise that the greener a constructing’s surroundings, the fewer crimes, intrafamily aggression, and violence suggested.51, fifty two Settings in which there are extra bushes and vegetation seem to inhibit crime, aggression, and violence, while selling social interaction among individuals. These results point to the significance of inspecting similar relationships similarly afield, both in community park settings and in different populations.
Economic benefits
Outdoor activity centers may additionally offer some of direct and oblique monetary benefits for their communities.Fifty three For example, several research have discovered that proximity to a particular reservoir54, fifty five state park,fifty six or local park57 become positively related to assets value. A look at accomplished in Boulder, Colorado, confirmed that the extra the space of a residential belongings from the greenbelt, the lower the charge of the assets.Fifty eight However, others showed combined or insignificant relationships among property values and distance from a park.Fifty nine, 60, sixty one For example, one look at tested the precise vicinity of houses relative to parks and discovered that there was a wonderful influence on belongings price most effective for the ones homes adjacent to and facing a park, and a poor have an impact on for those houses placed on a lot which subsidized on to the park or that were positioned adjacent to a heavy use vicinity of the park.Sixty two The majority of those studies regarded genuinely at distance of belongings to a park and did not think about the excellent of a park. Parks that have fallen into disuse and disrepair may also attenuate the capacity superb influences on land values. Future research must hold to investigate the park attributes which can effect property costs and the nearby financial system in wellknown.
Environmental blessings
Parks may additionally play a role in retaining and purifying the surroundings.Eight Air pollutants is a extensive human health concern as it is able to motive coughing, complications, lung, throat, and eye inflammation, breathing and coronary heart sickness, and cancer.63 Trees in city areas play a function in decreasing air pollution by way of absorbing gaseous pollutants and storing them, thereby removing them from the surroundings.63 Urban trees also slight temperatures by way of supplying shading and cooling to an area, hence helping to reduce the threat of warmth-associated ailments in city dwellers,64, 65, 66, sixty seven and in turn changing building energy use, which impacts pollution emissions from energy vegetation.63 Since parks are areas that typically contain massive numbers of bushes, their capacity environmental contribution have to be considered.


Who Should Pay For Our Health Care?

The debate goes on, should the government be responsible for providing our health care?

There are many arguments for and against national healthcare.

At one time, everyone was responsible for their own health, there was no insurance. In that day and age, medical care was a lot less expensive than it is today, even taking into account the rate of inflation over the years.

The rise in cost has in part is because of all the new technology available today, but to a large degree, the rising cost is due to increased demand.

Because of the change in our national mentality, in a large part due to negotiated union contracts, everyone thinks their health care is free. Most have come to believe it is a right, a right no one pays for.

I’m a firm believer that affordable healthcare should be available to everyone.

However, because of the present system, very few people   the cost of health care, and because it is presumably free to them, they go to the doctor for every little sniffle they get. Many visits are unnecessary and costly. People go to the emergency room for a skinned knee, or a splinter in their hand, these emergencies could be taken care of at home.

It has become “fashionable” to go to the emergency room.

Health insurance should be paid for by the individual. If each individual was responsible for their healthcare, they would become more knowledgeable on what “works” and what doesn’t.

Most companies that provide health insurance allocate a certain amount of wages for the payment of benefits including health insurance, whether they tell the employee or not.

The individual employee should be made aware of this, that money should be allocated to the individual so they can purchase their health care on an individual basis.

Thereby eliminating any corporate influence the company could exert on the insurance company, and it would open the insurance industry to more competition, that is always a good thing.

That would enable the individual to have more control over his health care and ensure his right to have or not have insurance.

In some cases, when both spouses work and are covered by their individual company insurance, both companies are providing and paying for health insurance and only one health plan is needed.

Therefore, money is wasted by the couple because they don’t use the insurance provided by one company. If the money was allocated to the employee, he or she could decide how to best use the money in a way that would benefit the couple instead of the money being flushed down the drain.

It would make the individual more responsible for his own health and welfare, and it would be his choice to have or not have health care.

If he chooses not to have health insurance, then he would be responsible for any charges incurred, and pay the consequences for not having insurance.

By cutting down on the demand by eliminating people going to a doctor or emergency room unless necessary, then the cost would naturally come down, and people would find the alternative, less expensive, better forms of treatment.

Of course, there will always be an element of society who are unable to care for themselves and they should be provided for, but there are far too many people abusing the system.

The only way to prevent that is for people to be in charge of their own health. Regardless of what you believe, no one, including the government will look after you like you will.

This is America, our country was founded on the idea of the individual being able to make his or her own choices concerning how to run their lives, it’s time we returned to those ideals and get government out of life management.

I have traversed the globe in search of truth, my truth, during which time I have had an opportunity to study with Aborigine elders, native American Indians, and some of the world’s finest intuitive. All of this has lead me to better understand our world and all things therein contained.

I have created a website to share some of my adventures and knowledge as I see it.


I have written several books and am available for book signings and speaking engagement


Health Care Plans Quickly and Easily Explained Part 1

If you have started you your research into what the best health car plan for you and your family is then you’ve more then likely hit a few roadblocks. Don’t be alarmed, that’s actually a common occurrence for many consumers looking to find the best deal for their health care insurance needs, especially when trying to determine the best health care coverage for your loved ones. You may have noticed that some health care plans differ in the amount of coverage they provide, the amount you pay as a premium, your co-payment amounts and even your deductible amounts.

One of the major differences in many of today’s health care plans is what services and medical treatments they will cover, especially with many health insurance companies taking the high road of offering better benefits towards routine treatments and preventive health checkups in an effort to reduce illnesses, major medical emergencies and   You can expect a   or physical along with a lengthy health questionnaire in order to identify any current or -existing medical conditions that could eliminate your potential to receive health insurance.

If you do have medical issues to include diabetes, hepatitis or any other major medical condition and are still granted the right to receive health insurance coverage then be fully prepared to pay a higher premium for your health insurance. This is also true if you are  or identified as a smoker.

Health care plans are broken down into two different categories of coverage; the indemnity healthcare plan sometimes referred to as fee-for -service and the more common managed health care plan. Both have their pluses and minuses, as you will soon discover.

The indemnity plan offers the most flexibility because it allows you the privilege of choosing or using your own or preferred health care professional, whether they are a doctor, physician or medical specialist. You also have the right to pretty much go to any hospital or clinic to seek medical treatment and referrals are not necessary to seek out specialists in certain medical fields. However as with most things in life, the costs justify the means and an indemnity health plan is no different. The deductibles on these plans are higher then a managed health care plan and more money comes out of the patients pocket (sometimes upfront) based on letting you use a doctor that is outside the health network your health insurance provider has established.

Although most prescriptions and treatments are covered under these plans you can expect to pay for other medical procedures that seem rather mundane and routine such as a physical.

This ends part 1 our 2-part article on health care plans quickly and easily explained series of articles. Be on the lookout for our next article which will focus on the more common managed health care plans which includes Health    (HMO), Preferred Provider   and Point of service Plans (P

Timothy  is a successful Webmaster and publisher of Easy Health Insurance Guide  . A website   in providing health insurance advice to include easy ways to find cheaper indemnity health care plans  Indemnity-Health-Care-Plans.html] that you can research in your   from the comfort of your own home.


Individual Health Insurance vs. Group Health Insurance

Individual health insurance is very different from group health insurance in some respects. Many people have had group health insurance from a large corporate group plan and that is all that they have ever known. Many have never had to actually pick and choose between different insurance companies and different health plans as all of the decision making was done on their behalf by their employer. Here are a few quick things to keep in minding when searching for individual health insurance.

The underwriting for individual health insurance is different than the underwriting for group health insurance.

This is great news if you, your spouse and kids are healthy as individual health insurance rates are much cheaper than a comparable group health insurance plan. It could be a cause for concern if you have some health issues in your past as there is the possibility that the application will be declined due to what is called  existing conditions” in your medical history. Most individual health insurance companies will look back into your health history going back about 10 years. If the application is on a fully underwritten basis and there are major health issues such as cancer, diabetes, heart disease, etc. then the application will be declined. (What do you do at this point? Make sure that you keep your current coverage and elect COBRA benefits or any other form of continuation coverage and when that coverage expires you will want to look for a eligible health insurance plan).

Individual health insurance is much cheaper than group health insurance.

Think of it kind of like; in individual health insurance the insurance company gets to pick and choose who they will extend coverage too. They choose those who are healthy and have the lowest risk to the company. Therefore, the rates are much lower than in a group health insurance plan where no matter who applies for coverage, whether healthy or unhealthy, they are offered coverage (and of course everyone that is unhealthy wants health insurance – this principle is called the law of adverse selection if any super technical people just love knowing the actual name of insurance principles). A good way to think about it is if you are healthy and on a group health insurance plan then you are in a sense   the cost of all of the unhealthy people on the group health insurance plan.

Getting quotes for individual health insurance is very easy.

Obtaining group health insurance quotes is sometimes a long drawn out process of filling out a census form with all of the employee information and other administrative time consuming tasks. With the ease of the Internet and the simplicity of individual health insurance rates all it takes is a few moments to enter in basic health insurance information and you


How to Save Money and Get Discount Health Insurance in Missouri

According to U.S. Census figures, more than 12 percent of the people in Missouri have no health insurance coverage at all, and that number is growing as more and more companies begin phasing out group health coverage for their workers.

If you work for a company which offers group health insurance you might do well to join their plan as quickly as possible. Group plans are forced by law to include individuals with existing conditions and to include people who smoke and use tobacco products. If you are fired or laid off you have many rights concerning health insurance that you do not have if you buy your own health insurance.

But today more and more people are forced to look for their own health coverage. If you are in this category you know how expensive health coverage is – but there are things you can do to save money and get discount health insurance right here in Missouri.

First, give up smoking and all tobacco products. You’ve been meaning to for years – now’s the time. Non-smokers pay a lot less for health insurance. If you’re obese you’ve got to bite the bullet and finally lose that extra weight. It’s hard to drop those pounds, but it can be done, and the thought of all that money you’re going to save on your health insurance premiums may help you on your way.

If you are having problems affording health care perhaps it’s time for you to simply look at health insurance from a different perspective. In the past people have looked to health insurance to pay (or help pay) for every doctor’s visit, and every other small health cost. But what if you change your perspective and look at health insurance as a safety net against wiping out your savings and taking your home in the case of a catastrophic illness or accident.

Looked at in this way, purchasing health insurance with a high deductible makes excellent sense financially. It means that you will be responsible for the majority of your run-of-the-mill health problems, but if a truly catastrophic problem arises, then your health insurance will take over, protecting your major assets.

And the higher your deductible the lower your monthly premiums.

Finally, get online and compare various health policies and their prices at a variety of insurance companies. Play around with the form, trying out various deductibles until you find a combination that makes sense for you. Accept the fact that there will be trade-offs when purchasing health insurance, and unless you are wealthy, compromises will undoubtedly have to be made.

Unfortunately, if you really want to save the most money and get truly discount health insurance you will have to run all of your figures over at least 3 different health insurance websites since no one website makes comparisons against every insurance company.

This means you’ll have to block out some time to make your comparisons, but the time you spend doing that today will pay off for years to come through lower health insurance premiums month after month after month.




Affordable Health Insurance in Massachusetts

Massachusetts                                is a unique state when it comes to health care coverage. Massachusetts has become the model for health care reform for the nation. Of all states, affordable health insurance in Massachusetts is the most possible. There are cost-efficient public options  by the state as well as many private and employer-sponsored plans from which to choose.

Affordable Health Insurance in Massachusetts: Statistics

The average annual premium for an employee-sponsored health plan in Massachusetts after employee contribution was $1,110 in 2009. The average cost of one day in a Massachusetts hospital that would come out of your pocket if you do not have health insurance is over $2,100 per day. Massachusetts is in the top 3 in the U.S. when it comes to physicians, obesity,  infant mortality and occupational fatalities, which makes the Massachusetts one of the healthiest states in the U.S.

Affordable Health Insurance in Massachusetts: The Health Connector

Massachusetts is the most insured state in the nation. Over 97 percent of residents have some form of health care coverage. Enacted into law in April of 2006, Massachusetts health reform has pursued the goal of near-universal health care in the state and has achieved it for the most part. The law requires adults who can obtain affordable health insurance in Massachusetts to do so. The Health Connector is a state agency of Massachusetts that aides residents of the state find affordable health care insurance and avoid tax penalties. Because health care coverage is mandatory, with some exceptions, tax penalties may be enforced if you fail to gain coverage. The Health Connector provides information concerning the public plans available, the cost of those plans, and qualification information for  plans and the health care insurance exemption.

Affordable Health Insurance in Massachusetts: Commonwealth Choice

Commonwealth Choice is a collection of six   Massachusetts health insurance plans arrived at through a competitive bidding process. They are available to individuals, families and employers and have been approved by the Health Connector. The plans available range in coverage options and overall cost and are provided by the following Massachusetts medical insurance companies.

Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts

Health New England
Health Plan
Tufts Health Plan
Harvard Pilgrim Health Plan
Affordable Health Insurance in Massachusetts: Commonwealth Care

Commonwealth Care is a public plan that calls for complete   of comprehensive Massachusetts health insurance for adults who earn up to 150 percent of the federal poverty level. The children of parents earning up to 300 percent of the federal poverty level also get completely   coverage. If earning between 150 and 300 percent of the federal poverty level, partial subsidies are available for qualifying adults. Additional qualifications require you to be a Massachusetts resident and not be eligible for employee-sponsored medical insurance or any other public option.




Health and Sanitation Practices and Academic Performance of Grade VI Pupils

The provision                     of health sanitation is a key development intervention – without it, ill health dominates a life without dignity. Simply having access to sanitation increases health, well-being and economic productivity. Inadequate sanitation impacts individuals, households, communities and countries. Despite its importance, achieving real gains in sanitation coverage has been slow. Achieving the internationally agreed targets for sanitation and hygiene poses a significant challenge to the global community and can only be accomplished if action is taken now. Low-cost, appropriate technologies are available. Effective program management approaches have been developed. Political will and concerted actions by all stakeholders can improve the lives of millions of people in the immediate future.

Nearly 40 percent of the world’s population (2.4 billion) has no access to hygienic means of personal sanitation. World Health  (WHO) estimates that 1.8 million people die each year from   diseases, 200 million people are infected with schistosomiasis and more than 1 billion people suffer from soil-transmitted   infections. A Special Session on Children of the United Nations General Assembly (2002) reported that nearly 5,500 children die every day from diseases caused by contaminated food and water because of health and sanitation malpractice.

Increasing access to sanitation and improving hygienic   are keys to reducing this enormous disease burden. In addition, such changes would increase school attendance, especially for girls, and help school children to learn better. They could also have a major effect on the economies of many countries – both rich and poor – and on the empowerment of women. Most of these benefits would accrue in developing nations.

The global community has set ambitious targets for improving access to sanitation by 2015. Achieving these goals will have a dramatic impact on the lives of hundreds of millions of the world’s poorest people and will open the door to further economic development for tens of thousands of communities. Access to adequate sanitation literally signifies crossing the most critical barrier to a life of dignity and of basic needs.

This study determined the health and sanitation practices of the Grade VI pupils in selected public schools in the district of , Province of  Philippines. This research undertaking  the descriptive correlation method of research to establish the influence of the profile variables on the respondents’ health practices, sanitation practices, and their academic performance, as well as the relationship between health and sanitation practices with academic performance. The following are the significant findings of the study:

Twenty five or 37.31 percent of the respondents are 12 years old; 41 or 61.19 percent are female; 47 or 70.14 percent are Roman Catholics; 22 or 32.84 percent are   20 or 20.89 of the respondents’ fathers reached elementary school level; 21 or 31.34 percent of their mothers are college graduates; 50 or 74.63 percent of their fathers are farmers; 38 or 56.72 percent are housekeepers; 34 or 50.75 percent have family income of 5,000.00 and below; 38 or 56.72 percent have 4 to 6 family members; 36 or 53.73 percent have 2 sanitation facilities; and 42 or 62.69 received 5

Health practices in the school obtained a grand mean of 3.89; 3.90 for health practices in the home; and 3.62 for health practices in the community, all qualitatively described as very satisfactory. The respondents perceived their sanitation practices in the school as very satisfactory with a grand mean of 3.44; also very satisfactory for sanitation practices in the home with 3.55; and again, very satisfactory for sanitation practices in the community, with 3.26 grand mean.

The perceived health practices of the respondents in the home significantly differ when they are grouped according to father’s educational attainment, mother’s educational attainment, father’s occupation, mother’s occupation, family monthly income, type of dwelling, and number of sanitation facilities as evidenced by the computed t-test and F-test results of 2.39, 2.64, 3.19, 3.28, 2.93, 3.18, and 3.19 respectively which are higher than the critical value at 0.05 level of significance. On the other hand, age, gender, mother’s educational attainment, mother’s occupation, type of dwelling, and number of sanitation facilities caused significant differences in the perceived health practices of the respondents in the school as shown by the computed t-test and F-test results of 3.15, 2.03, 2.39, 3.18, 3.16, and 3.74, respectively; all are higher than the critical values at 0.05 level of significance. Significant differences were also noted in the respondents’ health practices in the community when they are grouped according to ethnicity, father’s educational attainment, mother’s educational attainment, father’s occupation, mother’s occupation, family monthly income, number of sanitation facilities, and number of received because the computed t-test and F-test results of 2.76, 2.37, 2.41, 3.148, 3.16, 2.79, 3.26, and 3.17 respectively are higher that the critical values at 0.05 level of significance.

There exists a significant difference in the respondents’ sanitation practices in the home when they are grouped according to gender, ethnicity, father’s educational attainment, mother’s educational attainment, family monthly income, type of dwelling, and number of sanitation facilities because the computed values of t-test and F-test results of 2.05, 2.79, 2.37, 2.51, 2.78, 3.29, and 3.16 respectively are higher than the critical values at 0.05 level of significance. Moreover, gender, ethnicity, father’s educational attainment, mother’s educational attainment, family monthly income and number of sanitation practices caused significant variation in the respondents sanitation practices in the school as evidenced by the computed values of 2.15, 2.81, 2.42, 2.87, 2.83, and 3.79 respectively; all are also higher than the critical values at 0.05 level of significance. On the other hand, the respondents perception of their sanitation practices in the community differs when they are grouped according to gender, father’s educational attainment, mother’s educational attainment, father’s occupation, mother’s occupation, family monthly income and number of sanitation facilities since the computed t-test and F-test results of 2.06, 2.37, 2.41, 3.17, 3.148, 2.78, and 3.25 respectively are higher than the critical values at 0.05 level of significance.

There exists a significant difference in the respondents’ academic achievements when grouped according to gender, as indicated by the computed value of 2.27, which is higher than 1.99 critical values. Father’s and mother’s educational attainment with the computed values of 2.74 and 2.64, respectively, both higher than the critical value of 2.368, and their occupation with 3.17 and 3.27, respectively both higher than the critical value of 3.142 constitute significant variance in the respondents’ academic performance. Family monthly income and number of i  received, with the computed values of 2.86 and 3.19, respectively which are higher than the critical values of 2.754 and 3.142, respectively significantly differentiated the respondents’ academic performances.


The Integral Role of Physician Assistants in Modern Health Care

Physician                         assistants have been around since the and at first they served to bring medical care to a larger population in places where there weren’t enough physicians available. Since that time, the role of physician  care, and their pay reflects this, with the median annual salary at over $80,000.

Physicians hire   to work closely with them, and they delegate various medical duties to the PA that are relevant to the physician’s practice and that fall under the scope of the assistant’s training and experience. The various state medical boards allow physicians to have broad   authority when it comes to their allowing practices to be flexible, efficient, and to provide the best possible care for patients. In hospitals, have certain clinical privileges that they earn through a system similar to that used with physicians. In all 50 states, Washington DC, and Guam,  have authority to prescribe medications.

The  keeps track of the practice settings that employ   , and recorded that in 2008, around 43% of  third worked in hospitals, and the remainder worked in community health   rural clinics, nursing homes, outpatient surgical facilities, college and university based facilities, correctional facilities, and industrial settings. About one-fourth o  family and general medicine, with another quarter   in general surgery and surgical  Other PA   include general internal medicine  emergency medicine, obstetrics and  , occupational medicine, and dermatology.

Most physician assistant programs require a minimum of two years of college study, and most require health care experience prior to admission to a program. Before applying to a PA training program, prospective students should have course work in anatomy, biology, chemistry, nutrition, medical terminology, college level mathematics, physiology, and social sciences. In the US, there are more than 140 accredited PA programs, most of which are associated with two and four-year colleges of medicine or allied health. Application deadlines usually occur between November and March, with the programs themselves starting from May to September, depending on the educational institution.

Most physicians assistant programs take about two years to complete. During the first year, the student completes mostly classroom studies in the essential sciences like anatomy, physiology, and microbiology. During the second year of studies, the PA student participates in clinical rotations in various private and institutional settings. Clinical rotations generally include family medicine, internal medicine, emergency medicine,  , geriatrics, obstetrics and  general surgery,  psychiatry and radiology. After graduation from a physician assistant program,   take the national certifying exam that’s given by the National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants. After qualifying,   must participate in 100 hours of continuing medical education courses every two years to keep up with medical advances. They must also take   exams every six years.




Primary Care Physician or Specialist

Many                           patients who get sick wonder if they should make an appointment with a primary care physician or a specialist. General practitioners diagnose and treat a wide range of health maladies for their patients. Their patients may be newborn babies, teenagers, or the elderly. Specialists, on the other hand, focus on one area of treatment or one age group. Some examples are

Oncologists are doctors who diagnose and treat cancer in their patients. They focus purely on this disease although have patients in every age range and with all types of  and malignancies. Cardiologists are specialists who focus on the cardiovascular systems which include the heart, blood vessels, and lungs.   focus on the musculoskeletal portions of the body. If you have a broken bone, this is the MD you would see. Obstetricians are doctors who monitor pregnant   and deliver babies ‘ treatment focus is on the reproductive tracts of female patients. While a primary care physician could also diagnose and treat many of these conditions and illnesses, he or she would likely refer you to a specialist when your needs are out of his or her range of expertise.

by Age Groups

are doctors who diagnose and treat children. Their patients are newborns through adolescents. Some kids see the same  throughout their childhood and teen years. When they become an adult, they switch to a primary care physician who treats mainstream adults. Elderly individuals have specific health concerns that may be optimally addressed by geriatric specialists. When humans age, their skin, muscles, bones, organs, and minds change in various ways. It’s sometimes helpful to have a specialist with a firm grasp on  and elder concerns.

General Practitioner

Many patients prefer to stick with a family doctor over a specialist for a variety of reasons. For one, a relationship can be developed because every family member probably goes to see the same practitioner for every ailment. This allows the medical provider and patients to bond and know each other’s history. This can be helpful to the patient because he or she feels comfortable with the family doc. This can be advantageous to the primary care physician because he or she understands the patterns within a family.




70% of Mobile Searches Lead to Action Within 1 Hour [Infographic

Eloqua, the international       marketing automation firm, has assembled a selection of key mobile marketing facts, assessing the importance of mobile usage, key aspects of user and future trends for mobile marketers.

Usage stats

There are 6.8 billion people on the planet; 4 billion use a mobile phone; only 3.5 billion use a toothbrush.

Search and activity

70% of desktop searches lead to an action within 1 month. 70% of mobile searches lead to an action within 1 hour.

Receptivity of users to marketing messages

50% of those surveyed reported that receiving text messages from retailers and making a purchase as a result.

Other key data included:

How many mobile users bother to scan QR codes
Time users spend using smartphone applications
How the percentage of users doing mobile research translates into purchase figures
Marketers’ plans to use mobile technology over the next 12 months and beyond
Statistics and infographic taken from the Modern Marketer universe.


[View full-size infographic]

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